Spine or Vertebral column | Spine bones joints | Human Spine Anatomy 3D animation | Elearnin
This video illustrates one of the main parts of human body, the spinal cord or the vertebral column. Understand the intricacies of the movements of vertebral column by getting familiar with the joints and bones, and the set of complex muscles which make up the spinal cord.
The vertebral column in the mammals is known as the back bone or the spine. The vertebral column protects the spinal cord and even supports the head. The spinal cord serves as a joint for the ribs and musculature of the back. The spine is a cord like bony structure in the human body and other vertebrates.
Human vertebral column is formed by serially arranged units called the vertebrae and are inward placed. This vertebral column extends from the base of the skull and constitutes the main framework of the trunk. These vertebras have a central hollow potion which is called the neural canal. The spinal cord passes through this neural canal. The first vertebra is called the atlas and this atlas articulates the occipital condyle, which is a kidney-shaped convex surface found in the lower back part of the skull. The entire vertebral column is differentiated into cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral and coccygeal region starting from the skull.
The human body consists of about 24 articulating (or the joint) vertebrae that comprise these three sections. However, in reality, it consists of 33 vertebrae where the other five are fused to form the sacrum.
Broadly, the three main sections of the spine include: cervical spine, thoracic spine and the lumbar spine.
The cervical spine begins at the base of the skull. Seven vertebrae make up the cervical spine, which are small and delicate, with eight pair of cervical nerves. It is these vertebrae that help in the movement of the head and the neck.
The thoracic spine is located in the chest area and it contains 12 vertebrae. These are connected to the ribs which limits the flexibility of these vertebrae. The ribs aid in the protection of many vital organs in the human body. There is another float bone on the ventral midline of the thorax which is called the sternum.
The vertebrae in the lumbar spine in most people are five in number. They are larger than the thoracic or the cervical spine. They carry most of the body’s weight and support easy flexibility and extension.
Each of the vertebrae is supported by fibrous discs, known as the intervertebral discs that act like cushions between the bones. The body of the vertebrae provide a resting place for these fibrous discs. The vertebra increase in size from the neck, downwards, that is from the second cervical to the first thoracic. There is a slight decrease in the next three vertebrae and then again there is a gradual increase in size till the sacrum vertebrae.
Each fibrous disc is made up of two parts. The annulus is the hard outer layer of the vertebra. It surrounds a sponge-like centre called the nucleus. There are four facet joints in each vertebra, one pair faces upwards.
Stability to the spine is provided by interlocking with the adjacent vertebrae. A bone called the sacrum lies just below the lumbar spine. The sacrum is uniquely shaped. The lamina covers the spinal canal. It is a large hole in the centre of the vertebra. The spinal nerves pass through them.
Part of the spine bones seem to be projecting outside the spine, and these can be felt while running hands down the backbone. This part of the bone that projects outside is known as the spinous process. The spinous process is paired with two transverse processes, which are oriented 90 degrees to the spinous process, one on each side. They provide attachment to the back muscles.
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